Data regarding cost effectiveness of interventions analysing vaccination alone or screening alone was not extracted as it was irrelevant to the research question for this review. The subsequent chapter focuses on the gaps of these interventions, what could be done about it and recommendations on how should be done.
Delaying onset of sexual intercourse if you are young can help avoid HPV infection. Cervical cancer risk factors include: Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.
More so, there are concerns that vaccination programmes are not widely utilized in Nigeria. Chronic infection, especially when it is caused by certain high-risk HPV types, can eventually cause certain cancers, such as cervical cancer.
Each of them specializes in several spheres; therefore, it is not a problem for them to choose a topic, find appropriate sources and write a paper according to client's specifications. Researchers believe that these substances damage the DNA of cervix cells and may contribute to the development of cervical cancer.
A cone biopsy is rarely used as the sole treatment, except in those women with early Stage IA cancer who might want to have children. The effect on risk was seen even in women who had an IUD for less than a year, and the protective effect remained after the IUDs were removed.
These findings are identified under the following sub-headings: The availability of the radiotherapy machines in Nigeria compared to other parts of West Africa in indicated in table 1. When a woman develops cervical cancer or pre-cancerous changes, it is not possible to say with certainty that a particular risk factor was the cause.
Give your body the rest it needs so you will feel better as time goes on. The study has policy relevance and predictive value as it will offer recommendations to the Nigerian government and by extension developing countries blighted by the disease burden to adopt effective options for best policy actions.
Statistical evidence about cancer of the cervix. As Nnanna et al, notes, screening is opportunistic in most tertiary health care centers due to limited screening facilities which makes gynecological examinations more of evaluation of women presenting symptoms other than proper examination of the CC.
Twenty cervical cancer patients from the greater Auckland region and eleven health professionals were recruited for this evaluative study. Upon examining this paper, it was found that: Male circumcision was strongly linked with lower cervical cancer rates and less HIV and STI cases, independent of culture and religion in several studies including Adeola et al.
Malawi account for the highest CC new cases and related deaths in the world with an estimated death of 2, women in every 3, women diagnosed annually GHA, Several factors have been identified in literature for the prevalence of poor screening of CC in Nigeria including: The final stage is to assign values to each health state, typically costs and health utilities 41 Following this, the titles and abstracts of remaining papers were reviewed and duplicates were removed.
As Adekola et al notes, these interventions come from external agencies, including several non-governmental agencies and philanthropic organizations notably the Belinda and Gates Foundation Daily Newspaper, as there is currently no vaccine treatment for CC manufactured in Nigeria, nor is there any national policy or programme to that effect.
It is estimated that these centers have the capacity to annually screen women of reproductive age that are affected by the burden of CC disease Al-Hassan, Education on the need for reduced family size through the adoption of effective family planning methods can help in improving the general living condition of the people.
One way HPV spreads is through sexual activity, including vaginal, anal, and even oral sex. However, other sexually transmitted HPVs have been linked with genital or anal cancers in both men and women.
However, IUDs do have some risks. With regular cervical cancer screening and appropriate follow-up, most cervical cancer precursors can be identified and treated, interrupting progression to the severe disease stage.
This will eventually lead to sizeable population that can be easily reached with cervical cancer control programs. What factors have increased the prevalence of cervical cancer in developing countries particularly Nigeria.
Furthermore, an examination into the scope of the interventions by international aid agencies by the researcher revealed a cluster and duplication of roles in CC strategies which increases the propensity for intervention overlapping.
This would facilitate and coordinate most ongoing and future programmes aimed at the reduction of the disease. The alternatives at each chance node must be mutually exclusive and their probabilities sum exactly to one.
A, Shittu, Rafindadi, A. In a cohort study, it was reported that. Intrauterine device use, cervical infection with human papillomavirus, and risk of cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of 26 epidemiological studies Performance of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing as a primary screen for cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of individual patient data from 17 population-based studies from China.
Cervical cancer is the fourth most diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Approximately 90% of HPV infections clear up on their own within two years. More than 84% of cervical cancers are diagnosed in less developed nations. · concluded that cervical cancer was caused by infection through sexual contact.
Inthe virus origin of warts was proved by autoinoculation . In Richard Shope This thesis deals primarily with the relationship between human pathogenic papillomavirus and cervical winforlifestats.com · Recent Thesis Topics.
Predictors of Adherence to the LIVESTRONG at the YMCA Exercise Program in Cancer Survivors; Shaping Service Delivery for Cervical Cancer Screening: Understanding Knowledge, Acceptability, and Preferences among Women in the Neno District of winforlifestats.com://winforlifestats.com Small cell cancer of the cervix is a very rare type of cervical cancer.
Around 3 in every women (3%) diagnosed with cervical cancer have this type. Small cell cancers tend to grow quickly and are treated in a different way to the more common types of cervical winforlifestats.com://winforlifestats.com Edith Cowan University Research Online Theses: Doctorates and Masters Theses Attitudes, practices and knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening among Greek women in.Thesis on cervical cancer